Spatial analyses of Plasmodium knowlesi vectors with reference to control interventions in Malaysia

Pramasivan, Sandthya and Romano, Ngui and Nantha Kumar, Jeyaprakasam and Van, Lun Low and Jonathan Wee Kent, Liew and Indra, Vythilingam (2023) Spatial analyses of Plasmodium knowlesi vectors with reference to control interventions in Malaysia. Parasites & Vectors, 16 (355). pp. 1-13. ISSN 1756-3305

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Background Malaria parasites such as Plasmodium knowlesi, P. inui, and P. cynomolgi are spread from macaques to humans through the Leucosphyrus Group of Anopheles mosquitoes. It is crucial to know the distribution of these vectors to implement efective control measures for malaria elimination. Plasmodium knowlesi is the most predominant zoonotic malaria parasite infecting humans in Malaysia. Methods Vector data from various sources were used to create distribution maps from 1957 to 2021. A predictive statistical model utilizing logistic regression was developed using signifcant environmental factors. Interpolation maps were created using the inverse distance weighted (IDW) method and overlaid with the corresponding environmental variables. Results Based on the IDW analysis, high vector abundances were found in the southwestern part of Sarawak, the northern region of Pahang and the northwestern part of Sabah. However, most parts of Johor, Sabah, Perlis, Penang, Kelantan and Terengganu had low vector abundance. The accuracy test indicated that the model predicted sampling and non-sampling areas with 75.3% overall accuracy. The selected environmental variables were entered into the regression model based on their signifcant values. In addition to the presence of water bodies, elevation, temperature, forest loss and forest cover were included in the fnal model since these were signifcantly correlated. Anopheles mosquitoes were mainly distributed in Peninsular Malaysia (Titiwangsa range, central and northern parts), Sabah (Kudat, West Coast, Interior and Tawau division) and Sarawak (Kapit, Miri, and Limbang). The predicted Anopheles mosquito density was lower in the southern part of Peninsular Malaysia, the Sandakan Division of Sabah and the western region of Sarawak. Conclusion The study ofers insight into the distribution of the Leucosphyrus Group of Anopheles mosquitoes in Malaysia. Additionally, the accompanying predictive vector map correlates well with cases of P. knowlesi malaria. This research is crucial in informing and supporting future eforts by healthcare professionals to develop efective malaria control interventions.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Anopheles, Distribution, Leucosphyrus group, Predictive vector map, Malaysia.
Subjects: R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
Divisions: Academic Faculties, Institutes and Centres > Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Faculties, Institutes, Centres > Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Depositing User: Ngui
Date Deposited: 10 Oct 2023 01:51
Last Modified: 10 Oct 2023 01:51

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