Stigma and posttraumatic growth among COVID-19 survivors during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia : a multicenter cross-sectional study

Nazirah, Azman and Nik Ruzyanei, Nik Jaafar and Mohammad Farris Iman Leong, Abdullah and Nur Iwana, Abdul Taib and Nurul Ain, Mohamad Kamal and Muhammad Najib, Abdullah and Siti Nordiana, Dollah and Mohd Shahrir, Mohamed Said (2023) Stigma and posttraumatic growth among COVID-19 survivors during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia : a multicenter cross-sectional study. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 14. pp. 1-9. ISSN 1664-0640

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Background: Contracting COVID-19 can cause negative and distressing psychological sequelae, but traumatic stressors may also facilitate the development of positive psychological change beyond an individual’s previous level of adaptation, known as posttraumatic growth (PTG). As a result, studies have investigated the negative effects of COVID-19 on mental health, but data on PTG among patients who have recovered from COVID-19 remains limited. This study aims to evaluate the level of PTG and its associations with stigma, psychological complications, and sociodemographic factors among COVID-19 patients 6 months post-hospitalization. Method: A cross-sectional online survey of 152 COVID-19 patients was conducted after 6 months of being discharged from Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz, MAEPS Quarantine Center, or Hospital Sungai Buloh, Malaysia. Patients completed a set of questionnaires on sociodemographic and clinical data. The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI-SF) was used to assess the level of PTG, the Kessler Psychological Distress (K6) was used to measure the degree of psychological distress, the General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) was used to evaluate the severity of anxiety symptoms, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess the severity of depression symptoms, and the Explanatory Model Interview Catalog Stigma Scale (EMIC-SS) was used to record the degree of perceived stigma toward COVID-19. Results: The median PTGI SF score of the respondents was 40.0 (Interquartile range 16.0). Multivariable general linear model with bootstrapping (2,000 replications) revealed factors that significantly predicted PTG, which were at the higher level of the perceived stigma score, at 37 (B = 0.367, 95% CI = 0.041 to 0.691, p = 0.026), among the Malay ethnicity (B = 12.767, 95% CI 38 = 7.541 to 17.993, p < 0.001), retirees (B = −12.060, 95% CI = −21.310 to −2.811, p = 0.011), and those with a history of medical illness (B = 4.971, 95% CI = 0.096 to 9.845, p = 0.046). Conclusion: Experiencing stigma contributed to patients’ PTG in addition to psychosocial factors such as ethnicity, history of medical illness, and retirement.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: COVID-19
Uncontrolled Keywords: posttraumatic growth, stigma, COVID-19, psychological trauma, social stigma.
Subjects: R Medicine > RZ Other systems of medicine
Divisions: Academic Faculties, Institutes and Centres > Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Faculties, Institutes, Centres > Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Depositing User: Abdul Taib
Date Deposited: 15 Jun 2023 02:39
Last Modified: 15 Jun 2023 02:39

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