Technologies for removing pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from aqueous solutions: Recent advances, performances, challenges and recommendations for improvements

Tianqi, Liu and Chukwunonso O., Aniagor and Marcel I., Ejimofor and Matthew C., Menkiti and Kuok Ho Daniel, Tang and Bridgid Lai Fui, Chin and Yi Herng, Chan and Chung Loong, Yiin and Kin Wai, Cheah and Yee Ho, Chai and Serene Sow Mun, Lock and Kok Liang, Yap and Melvin Xin Jie, Wee and Pow Seng, Yap (2023) Technologies for removing pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from aqueous solutions: Recent advances, performances, challenges and recommendations for improvements. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 374. pp. 1-50. ISSN 1873-3166

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In recent years, the removal of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) from aqueous solutions has been gaining a lot of attention from researchers throughout the world. This is particularly due to the concern about their potential hazards and toxicities, as they are classified as emerging contaminants. Thus, there is an increasing need to investigate removal technologies for PPCPs at a deeper and more holistic level. This review aims to provide the latest developments in removal technologies for PPCPs. It first succinctly describes the types, characteristics, and hazards of PPCPs on the environment and human health. It then comprehensively covers a wide range of technologies for removing PPCPs from aqueous solutions, comprising the adsorption process (using carbon-based adsorbents, plant biomasses, clay and clay minerals, silica-based adsorbents, zeolite-based adsorbents, polymers and resins, and hybrid adsorbents), advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) (photocatalysis, Fenton or photo-Fenton or electro-Fenton, ozonation, ultrasonication, electrochemical oxidation, persulfate oxidation), membrane separation processes (ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis), biodegradation processes (bacteria, fungi, and algae), and hybrid treatment (adsorption-AOP, AOP-membrane, membrane-biodegradation, and others). According to the specific experimental conditions, the reported removal efficiencies for adsorption, AOPs, membrane processes, biodegradation processes and hybrid treatment were 40–100%, 40–100%, 3–100%, 14–100% and 5–100%, respectively. This review paper also highlights the challenges in this field of research, particularly incomplete removal of certain PPCPs, high costs of some treatment technologies and generally insufficient understanding on the removal kinetics and mechanisms of PPCPs. This review offers recommendations for future works to further advance the technical performances to eventually realize the wider application of these technologies at the industrial scale.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Pharmaceutical and personal care products, Adsorption, Advanced oxidation processes, Membrane separation Biodegradation, Hybrid treatment.
Subjects: T Technology > T Technology (General)
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Divisions: Academic Faculties, Institutes and Centres > Faculty of Engineering
Faculties, Institutes, Centres > Faculty of Engineering
Depositing User: Chung Loong
Date Deposited: 02 Feb 2023 01:28
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2023 01:28

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