Resource Aware Routing Protocol for Infrastructure-less Non-social Opportunistic Networks

Aref, Kurdali (2022) Resource Aware Routing Protocol for Infrastructure-less Non-social Opportunistic Networks. PhD thesis, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak.

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The Opportunistic Networks (OppNets) have emerged as a new communication paradigm of Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). It becomes dominant due to the emergence of smart devices equipped with wireless facilities. Nodes in OppNets are in constant and unpredictable mobility and connections are interrupted continuously. In these networks, routing relies on seizing the opportunity of nodes' encounters to disseminate messages in the network. In resource-constrained stateless non-social OppNets, new challenges arise such as information scarcity, low energy, and low memory capacity. In these networks, routers should have enough acumen to deal with message routing duty. Consequently, in such harsh environments, routing becomes more challenging. To cope with these challenges, this thesis presents a novel resource-aware routing (ReAR) protocol that includes two schemes; the Mutual Information-based Weighting Scheme (MIWS) and the Acumen Message Drop (AMD) scheme. MIWS estimates the impact (weight) of the nodes' attributes on data forwarding performance. The high weight of certain attributes implies a correspondingly high impact in achieving efficient data forwarding. The weights are estimated in real-time in stateless non-social OppNets. MIWS is used to estimate buffer weight. The main objective of buffer weight estimation is to control buffer consumption in the network. The AMD scheme is a buffer management scheme. AMD takes into consideration the impact of the message drop decision on the data dissemination performance. This will assure that the message is not dropped as long as there is still a possibility that it will reach its destination. To achieve this goal, the message's drop decisions are made based on the considerations that play a vital role in determining the feasibility of message retention. AMD proposes to drop the message based on the estimated time of message's arrival to its destination and the message lifetime. AMD works as a plug-in in any routing protocol. Simulation results show that combining the AMD scheme with the Probabilistic Routing Protocol using History of Encounters and Transitivity (PRoPHET) increases efficiency by up to 60%, while if combined with Epidemic routing protocol, efficiency increases by up to 31%. Both, MIWS and AMD, depend only on the contact history information which is the only information available in the stateless non-social OppNets. Further, this thesis provides a comprehensive analytical study of the performance of the most distinguished routing protocols in OppNets. Based on the results of this study in addition to the two aforementioned schemes (MIWS and AMD), the ReAR protocol was developed to raise performance. ReAR achieves the following objectives: Imposes an upper bound on message’s copies in the network, achieves an equitable distribution of traffic loads among nodes based on resource consideration, avoids congestion proactively, and regulates buffer consumption in the network. ReAR raises the delivery ratio, on average, by 45%, 72%, 200%, 849%, 1008% compared with EBR, ES&W, PRoPHET, MaxProp and Epidemic routing protocols respectively.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Divisions: Academic Faculties, Institutes and Centres > Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology
Date Deposited: 15 Sep 2022 09:21
Last Modified: 21 Sep 2022 07:46

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