Forage Resources and Nutrient Content in Grazing Areas of Oil Palm Plantation

Sharifah Mazenah, Wan Yusuf (2022) Forage Resources and Nutrient Content in Grazing Areas of Oil Palm Plantation. PhD thesis, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak.

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Abstract

Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is one of the most important commodity crops due to its high oil content and increasing global demand for oil in the food, fuel, and cosmetic industries. The extensiveness of oil palm plantation in Malaysia and its luxuriant cover crops have been viewed as a potential avenue for promoting livestock-tree crop integration. The huge land areas of plantations have integrated livestock and crop production. The specific objectives of this study were to (i) determine the floristic diversity and carbon stock of weed species in an integrated oil palm plantation area, (ii) examine the forage recovery of selected forage species following livestock grazing, (iii) examine the forage preferred by livestock between cut and uncut forages, and (iv) determine the selected elements and toxic elements contained in the selected forage and weeds species. The study was conducted at an integrated oil palm plantation in Serian, Sarawak. Initial sampling showed that 10961 total individuals were recorded, belonging to 53 species of weeds. The second sampling carried out six months after the initial sampling recorded 9959 individuals consisting of 62 species and higher diversity than the initial sampling. The estimated carbon stock was 0.43 tonne ha-1 for the initial sampling and 0.41 tonne ha-1 for the second sampling. Recovery of Axonopus compressus showed the significant difference of mean height between grazed, cut, and ungrazed, in which the ungrazed was higher than grazed and cut. For cut A. compressus the recovery height was better in shaded than opened areas. The height recovery for grazed, cut, and ungrazed Elaeis guineensis seedlings differed significantly. The recovery of E. guineensis was higher in ungrazed than grazed. The difference was significant for grazed and cut and between cut and ungrazed. The cut E. guineensis showed a higher height recovery in opened than the shaded area. There was a significant difference in the recovery of new shoots for grazed and cut Antrophyum reticulatum. The mean percentage of forage preferred by livestock showed that the uncut was higher than cut A. compressus. Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Sulphur (S), and Sodium (Na) were detected in A. compressus, E. guineensis, A. reticulatum, Asystasia gangetica, and Scleromitrion verticillatum in different concentrations. No heavy metals were detected in the consumed plants. Toxicity analyses of unconsumed plants; Melastoma malabathricum, Miconia crenata, Diplazium esculentum, Taenitis blechnoides, and Torenia crustacea did not contain hazardous elements such as Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg), and Arsenic (Ar) except for Aluminium (Al). This study revealed that no cutting of forages is required provided that the rotation system incorporate forage recovery in the rotation schedule. Livestock did not adversely affect forage growth and development because grazed weeds are tolerant of grazing stress.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Additional Information: Thesis (PhD.) - Universiti Malaysia Sarawak , 2022.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Integrated oil palm plantation, weeds diversity, forage recovery, forage preferences, elements in forage
Subjects: S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)
S Agriculture > SB Plant culture
Divisions: Academic Faculties, Institutes and Centres > Faculty of Resource Science and Technology
Depositing User: SHARIFAH MAZENAH BINTI WAN YUSUF
Date Deposited: 18 Jul 2022 07:22
Last Modified: 29 Jul 2022 07:48
URI: http://ir.unimas.my/id/eprint/38886

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