Tap water contamination: Multiclass endocrine disrupting compounds in different housing types in an urban settlement

Sze Yee, Wee and Ahmad Zaharin, Aris and Fatimah Md, Yusoff and Sarva Mangala, Praveena (2020) Tap water contamination: Multiclass endocrine disrupting compounds in different housing types in an urban settlement. Chemosphere, 264 (128488). pp. 1-9. ISSN 0045-6535

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Contamination of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in tap water is an emerging global issue, and there are abundant influencing factors that have an ambivalent effect on their transportation and fate. Different housing types vary in terms of water distribution system operation and design, water consumption choices, and other hydraulic factors, which potentially affect the dynamics, loadings, and partitioning of pollutants in tap water. Thus, this study analyzed 18 multiclass EDCs in tap water from different housing types (i.e., landed and high-rise) and the associated health risks. Sample analyses revealed the presence of 16 EDCs, namely hormones (5), pharmaceuticals (8), a pesticide (1), and plasticizers (2) in tap water, with the prevalent occurrence of bisphenol A up to 66.40 ng/L in high-rise housing. The presence of caffeine and sulfamethoxazole distribution in tap water was significantly different between landed and high-rise housings (t(152) ¼ 2.298, p ¼ 0.023 and t(109) ¼ 2.135, p ¼ 0.035). Moreover, the salinity and conductivity of tap water in high-rise housings were significantly higher compared to those in landed housings (t(122) ¼ 2.411, p ¼ 0.017 and t(94) ¼ 2.997, p ¼ 0.003, respectively). Furthermore, there were no potential health risks of EDCs (risk quotient < 1) estimated in different age groups via drinking water intake. However, EDC variation in different housing types requires simulation of the occurrence, transport, and fate of EDCs in the distribution system and investigation of the underlying factors for effective mitigation, prevention, and intervention.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation
Uncontrolled Keywords: Hormone, Pharmaceutical Pesticide, Plasticizer, Drinking water exposure. Risk assessment
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor > HD61 Risk Management
Divisions: Academic Faculties, Institutes and Centres > Institute of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation
Faculties, Institutes, Centres > Institute of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation
Depositing User: Sze Yee
Date Deposited: 06 Jul 2022 23:58
Last Modified: 31 Mar 2023 03:18
URI: http://ir.unimas.my/id/eprint/38826

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