Eco-toxic risk assessment and source distribution of trace metals in surface sediments of the coastal and in four rivers estuary of Sarawak

Asare, Ebenezer Aquisman and Zaini, Assim and Rafeah, Wahi and Fianko, Joseph Richmond (2022) Eco-toxic risk assessment and source distribution of trace metals in surface sediments of the coastal and in four rivers estuary of Sarawak. Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 11 (18). pp. 1-17. ISSN 2314-8535

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Abstract

Background: Trace metals pollution in the coastal and estuarine sediment could harm water quality and aquatic organisms, leading to potential long-term health risks on the environment and humans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct an assessment of selected trace metals in surface sediments of the coastal and in four rivers estuary in the Sarawak State of Malaysia to investigate their distribution, environmental risk, and potential source distribution. Results: Average concentrations of trace metals in sediment increased in the following order: Cd ˂ As ˂ Co ˂ Cu ˂ Ni ˂ Cr ˂ Zn ˂ Mn ˂ Mg ˂ Fe. The enrichment, contamination, and geo-accumulation index results showed that surface sediments were polluted with Zn and Mg. In contrast, the other metals (i.e., As, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, and Cd) indicated background concentration to minor contamination. Generally, the pollution load index values showed that almost all the sampling sites were unpolluted with the selected trace metals. Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) and risk indexes were employed to assess the ecotoxicological risk of trace metal contamination in the sediments. The results proved that studied trace metals are not likely to have a deleterious impact on bottom-dwelling organisms. Still, a further accumulation of trace metals such as Zn, Ni, and Cr with time may adversely afect bottom-dwelling organisms. The risk index results showed a low ecological risk to the study sites. The correlation analysis and principal component analysis indicated that nine studied trace metals have strong interrelationships, suggesting common pollution sources or similar geochemical characteristics. Conclusions: The study highlights the need to make tremendous eforts to monitor and control trace metal pollution in the coastal and estuarine areas

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Trace metals, Eco-toxic risk, Surface sediments, Pollutants, Bottom-dwelling organisms.
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
Q Science > QD Chemistry
Divisions: Academic Faculties, Institutes and Centres > Faculty of Resource Science and Technology
Depositing User: Gani
Date Deposited: 09 Mar 2022 01:26
Last Modified: 09 Mar 2022 01:26
URI: http://ir.unimas.my/id/eprint/38022

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