Diagnostic accuracy of serological tests for the diagnosis of Chikungunya virus infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Anna, Andrew and Navien, Tholasi Nadhan and Yeoh, Tzi Shien and Citartan, Marimuthu and Ernest, Mangantig and Ch'ng, Ewe Seng and Tang, Thean Hock and Magdline Sia, Henry Sum (2022) Diagnostic accuracy of serological tests for the diagnosis of Chikungunya virus infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 16 (2). pp. 1-28. ISSN 1935-2735

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Abstract

Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes febrile illnesses and has always been misdiagnosed as other viral infections, such as dengue and Zika; thus, a laboratory test is needed. Serological tests are commonly used to diagnose CHIKV infection, but their accuracy is questionable due to varying degrees of reported sensitivities and specificities. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of serological tests currently available for CHIKV. Methodology and principal findings A literature search was performed in PubMed, CINAHL Complete, and Scopus databases from the 1st December 2020 until 22nd April 2021. Studies reporting sensitivity and specificity of serological tests against CHIKV that used whole blood, serum, or plasma were included. QUADAS-2 tool was used to assess the risk of bias and applicability, while R software was used for statistical analyses. Thirty-five studies were included in this meta-analysis; 72 index test data were extracted and analysed. Rapid and ELISA-based antigen tests had a pooled sensitivity of 85.8% and 82.2%, respectively, and a pooled specificity of 96.1% and 96.0%, respectively. According to our meta-analysis, antigen detection tests serve as a good diagnostic test for acute-phase samples. The IgM detection tests had more than 90% diagnostic accuracy for ELISA-based tests, immunofluorescence assays, in-house developed tests, and samples collected after seven days of symptom onset. Conversely, low sensitivity was found for the IgM rapid test (42.3%), commercial test (78.6%), and for samples collected less than seven of symptom onset (26.2%). Although IgM antibodies start to develop on day 2 of CHIKV infection, our meta-analysis revealed that the IgM detection test is not recommended for acute-phase samples. The diagnostic performance of the IgG detection tests was more than 93% regardless of the test formats and whether the test was commercially available or developed in-house. The use of samples collected after seven days of symptom onset for the IgG detection test suggests that IgG antibodies can be detected in the convalescent-phase samples. Additionally, we evaluated commercial IgM and IgG tests for CHIKV and found that ELISA-based and IFA commercial tests manufactured by Euroimmun (Lübeck, Germany), Abcam (Cambridge, UK), and Inbios (Seattle, WA) had diagnostic accuracy of above 90%, which was similar to the manufacturers’ claim. Conclusion Based on our meta-analysis, antigen or antibody-based serological tests can be used to diagnose CHIKV reliably, depending on the time of sample collection. The antigen detection tests serve as a good diagnostic test for samples collected during the acute phase (≤7 days post symptom onset) of CHIKV infection. Likewise, IgM and IgG detection tests can be used for samples collected in the convalescent phase (>7 days post symptom onset). In correlation to the clinical presentation of the patients, the combination of the IgM and IgG tests can differentiate recent and past infections.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), dengue and Zika, viral infections, Serological tests.
Subjects: Q Science > QR Microbiology
Divisions: Academic Faculties, Institutes and Centres > Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Depositing User: Andrew
Date Deposited: 22 Feb 2022 03:14
Last Modified: 09 Mar 2022 06:25
URI: http://ir.unimas.my/id/eprint/37930

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