Fine-needle aspiration to improve diagnosis of melioidosis of the head and neck in children: a study from Sarawak, Malaysia

Mohan, Anand and Podin, Yuwana and Liew, Da-Wei and Kumar, Jeevithaa Mahendra and Lau, Peter Sie Teck and Tan, Yee-Yen and Tai, Yi-Pinn and Gill, Ranveer Singh and Shanmugam, Ram and Chien, Su Lin and Tan, Lee See and Mat Sani, Nurul Asiah and Manan, Kamilah and Ooi, Mong How (2021) Fine-needle aspiration to improve diagnosis of melioidosis of the head and neck in children: a study from Sarawak, Malaysia. BMC Infectious Diseases, 21 (1069). pp. 1-9. ISSN 1471-2334

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Melioidosis, the infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is associated with a high case fatality rate, due in part to difficulties in clinical recognition and diagnostic confirmation of the disease. Although head and neck involvement is common in children, specific disease manifestations differ between geographic regions. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of melioidosis of the head and neck among children in Sarawak, Malaysia, and determine if fine-needle aspiration of suspected head or neck lesions could improve melioidosis diagnosis. Methods We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of all children aged < 12 years with culture-confirmed melioidosis presenting with head and neck manifestations and admitted to Bintulu Hospital in Sarawak, Malaysia, from January 2011 until December 2020. Fine-needle aspiration of head and neck lesions suspected to be due to melioidosis with inoculation in blood culture bottles (FNA + BCB) was used from the beginning of 2016. Results Of 34 children with culture-confirmed melioidosis, 20 (59%) had an infection involving one or more sites in the head and neck. Of these, 17 (85%) were diagnosed in or after 2016. Cervical lymph nodes were the most common organ or site affected, involved in 19 (95%) children. Clinical presentations of B. pseudomallei lymph node infections were highly variable. Five (25%) children had salivary gland involvement. Lacrimal gland involvement (dacryocystitis) and skin or soft tissue infection (scalp abscess) were less frequent. B. pseudomallei was isolated from the head or neck using FNA + BCB in 15 (75%) children and by standard culture methods of direct plating of pus on agar following incision and drainage in only 2 (10%) children. B. pseudomallei was isolated from non-head or neck specimens or blood in 3 (15%) children. Conclusions Manifestations of pediatric head and neck melioidosis in Sarawak, Malaysia, differ from those of other regions. Fine-needle aspiration, mainly of affected cervical lymph nodes, facilitates B. pseudomallei detection and enables confirmation of melioidosis infections.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Melioidosis, Children, Head and neck, Lymph nodes, Diagnosis, Malaysia
Subjects: Q Science > QR Microbiology
R Medicine > RB Pathology
R Medicine > RJ Pediatrics
R Medicine > RJ Pediatrics > RJ101 Child Health. Child health services
Divisions: Academic Faculties, Institutes and Centres > Institute of Health and Community Medicine
Faculties, Institutes, Centres > Institute of Health and Community Medicine
Depositing User: Ramji
Date Deposited: 13 Dec 2021 04:49
Last Modified: 13 Dec 2021 04:49

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