Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Melioidosis Caused by Gentamicin-Susceptible Burkholderia pseudomallei in Sarawak, Malaysia

Sia, Tonnii LL and Anand, Mohan and Ooi, Mong-How and Chien, Su-Lin and Tan, Lee-See and Goh, Charles and Pang, Daniel C. L. and Bart J., Currie and Wong, Jin-Shyan and Yuwana, Podin (2021) Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Melioidosis Caused by Gentamicin-Susceptible Burkholderia pseudomallei in Sarawak, Malaysia. Open Forum Infectious Diseases, 8 (10). pp. 1-9. ISSN 2328-8957

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Abstract

Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to a broad range of antibiotics, including aminoglycosides. In Sarawak, Malaysia, a high proportion of melioidosis cases are caused by gentamicin-susceptible isolates. There are limited epidemiological and clinical data on these infections. Methods. We conducted a retrospective study of culture-confirmed melioidosis among adults admitted to Bintulu Hospital in Sarawak, Malaysia, from January 2011 until December 2016. One hundred forty-eight adults with culture-confirmed melioidosis were identified. Of 129 (87%) tested, 84 (65%) had gentamicin-susceptible B pseudomallei. The average annual incidence of melioidosis was 12.3 per 100 000 population, with marked variation between districts ranging from 5.8 to 29.3 per 100 000 population. Rural districts had higher incidences of melioidosis and overwhelmingly larger proportions of gentamicin-susceptible B pseudomallei infection. Significantly more patients with gentamicin-susceptible infection had no identified risk factors, with diabetes less frequently present in this group. Ninety-eight percent had acute presentations. Pneumonia, reported in 71%, was the most common presentation. Splenic abscesses were found in 54% of those imaged. Bacteremia was present in 88%; septic shock occurred in 47%. Forty-five (35%) patients died. No differences in clinical, laboratory, or outcome characteristics were noted between gentamicin-susceptible and gentamicin-resistant infections. Gentamicin-susceptible B pseudomallei infections are common in Sarawak and dominate in the high-incidence rural interior regions. Clinical manifestations and outcomes are the same as for gentamicin-resistant B pseudomallei infections. Further studies are required to determine if all gentamicin-susceptible B pseudomallei infections in Sarawak are clonal and to ascertain their environmental drivers and niches.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: melioidosis; Burkholderia pseudomallei; gentamicin-susceptible; clinical characteristics; Sarawak.
Subjects: Q Science > QR Microbiology
R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
Divisions: Academic Faculties, Institutes and Centres > Institute of Health and Community Medicine
Depositing User: Podin
Date Deposited: 11 Nov 2021 04:17
Last Modified: 11 Nov 2021 04:17
URI: http://ir.unimas.my/id/eprint/36666

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