Coupling Normalization with Moving Window in Backpropagation Neural Network (BNN) for Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Retrieval

Soo See, Chai and Kok Luong, Goh and Robin Chang, Yee Hui and Kwan Yong, Sim (2021) Coupling Normalization with Moving Window in Backpropagation Neural Network (BNN) for Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Retrieval. International Journal of Computational Intelligence Systems, 14 (179). pp. 1-11. ISSN 1875-6883

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A common practice to capture the non-stationary characteristics of the time series data in Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is by randomly dividing the whole set of available data into training, validation and testing, i.e. the data in validation and testing are represented in the training data. Consequently, the usability of the developed model on data not represented by the training data used during the network model development process is always doubtful. In this work, we present a backpropagation neural network (BNN) model trained using one-day history data to predict soil moisture data at 1  km resolution for two future dates. Specifically, high soil moisture values were observed in the training data while the testing data were characterized by drier conditions due to minimal or no rainfall. Our model uses separate mean and standard deviation statistics values from the training and testing data, respectively, to the z-normalized data. With data pre-processed using this method, the BNN model next uses a moving window of size 4  km × 4  km to capture the spatial variability of the soil moisture throughout the 40  km × 40  km study area. The coupling of the normalization and moving window method managed to achieve average soil moisture with Root Mean Square (RMSE) of 3.67% and correlation coefficient, R2 of 0.89. By only using the suggested normalization without the moving window method, the BNN model managed to achieve an average RMSE of barely 5.82% with R2 = 0.83. When comparing with the normal practice of using the same mean and standard deviation statistics of the training data in the testing data, the retrieval accuracy of the BNN model deteriorates to 8.86% with R2 = 0.32. The experiment results demonstrated that the proposed coupling method performed better in terms of both RMSE and R2 for soil moisture retrieval.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Backpropagation, neural network, normalization, passive microwave, soil moisture, UNIMAS, University, Borneo, Malaysia, Sarawak, Kuching, Samarahan, IPTA, education, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Divisions: Academic Faculties, Institutes and Centres > Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology
Depositing User: See
Date Deposited: 18 Oct 2021 03:50
Last Modified: 18 Oct 2021 03:50

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