Environmental Conservation Practices Adoption among Independent Oil Palm Smallholders in Sarawak, Malaysia

Mohamad Arfan, Johari (2021) Environmental Conservation Practices Adoption among Independent Oil Palm Smallholders in Sarawak, Malaysia. PhD thesis, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS).

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Adoption of Malaysian Sustainable Palm Oil (MSPO) standard has been made mandatory by the end of 2019 to all oil palm players including Independent Oil Palm Smallholders (ISH). There have seven principles of MSPO certification, and the Environmental Conservation Practices (ECP) the fifth principle that was assessed for this study. This dissertation examines the ECP’s adoption level among ISH in Sarawak, Malaysia. It’s also identified the ISH’s driving and constraining factors by examining ECP’s adoption status. The primary data were collected using questionnaire surveys, face-to-face interviews, and farm observation on 807 ISH in Sarawak. Secondary data were obtained from reports, previous studies and annual reports. Likert scale and descriptive statistical analysis were used to examine and determine the ECP’s adoption level, knowledge level and adoption perception. Chi-square tests were performed to determine the relationship between ECP's adoption level with a personal profile and farm profile. Simultaneously, the Pearson Correlation test was used to determine the relationship between ECP’s adoption level with ECP’s knowledge level and ECP’s adoption perceptions. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 22 was used for data analysis. Results showed that the average age of respondents was 53 years old and dominated by male (86.1%). Most of them are full-time smallholders (61.0%) and attended primary and secondary school (39.3% and 38.9%, respectively). About 60.2% of them are Iban. The average monthly income of them is RM3, 246.48, and owning farm size less than four ha. About (99.1%) of them hold oil palm below fifteen years old with approximately produced 10.7 ton/ha/year in average. The majority of them planted oil palm on the flat and undulating mineral soil that previously so-called idle land. A total of 58.7% of them categorized as ECP’s moderate-level adopters, 24.3% as low-level adopters and 17.0% as high-level adopters. Overall, ECP’s adoption level among respondents was categorized as moderate when the mean score was equal to 3.084 (Likert scale 1 to 5). Profitability and benefits were the top-ranked factor stated by respondents (29.3% of them) for adopting ECP. Meanwhile, 20% of respondents stated that biophysical and technical factors were the main constraints. ECP's adoption level had a significant relationship with gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, participation as an ISH, age group, household income, farm size, age of oil palm, oil palm yield and previous farmland use. ECP's knowledge level and ECP's adoption perception are also correlated and influence the ECP's adoption level. Future studies is needed by focusing to determine and create formulas or systems in strengthening contributing factors and overcome shortcoming in adopting ECP by ISH. Currently, awareness programs on the ECP’s adoption are the best efforts, and relevant agencies should implement the promotion or campaigns of ECP on an ongoing basis effectively.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Additional Information: Thesis (PhD.) - Universiti Malaysia Sarawak , 2021.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Adoption level, constraining factors, driving factors, environmental. conservation practices, independent oil palm smallholders
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor
Q Science > Q Science (General)
S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)
Divisions: Academic Faculties, Institutes and Centres > Faculty of Resource Science and Technology
Faculties, Institutes, Centres > Faculty of Resource Science and Technology
Date Deposited: 11 Aug 2021 10:45
Last Modified: 20 Mar 2023 03:43
URI: http://ir.unimas.my/id/eprint/35791

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