Biosynthesis, characterization, and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoaggregates using aqueous extract from Anacardium occidentale leaf: comparative study of different precursors

Droepenu, Eric Kwabena and Asare, Ebenezer Aquisman and Wee, Boon Siong and Rafeah, Wahi and Ayertey, Frederick and Kyene, Odoi Michael (2021) Biosynthesis, characterization, and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoaggregates using aqueous extract from Anacardium occidentale leaf: comparative study of different precursors. Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 10 (1). pp. 1-10. ISSN 2314-8543

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Abstract

Background Various parts of Anacardium occidentale plant possess curative qualities like antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant. Aqueous extract of this plant leaf was used in biosynthesizing zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoaggregates using two precursors of zinc salt (zinc acetate dihydrate [Zn(CH3COO)2∙2H2O] and zinc chloride [ZnCl2]). The synthesized ZnO samples were used in a comparative study to investigate the antibacterial activity against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative microbes [Staphylococcus aureus, Exiguobacterium aquaticum (Gram +ve) and Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii (Gram −ve)]. The synthesized ZnO nanoaggregates from the two precursors were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) techniques. Results Micrographs of SEM and TEM confirmed nanoparticles agglomerated into aggregates. While spherical nanoaggregates were identified in samples prepared from Zn(CH3COO)2∙2H2O, flake-like structures were identified in samples synthesized from ZnCl2. Particle size determined by TEM was 107.03 ± 1.54 nm and 206.58 ± 1.86 nm for zinc acetate dihydrate and zinc chloride precursors respectively. ZnO nanoaggregate synthesized using zinc acetate as precursor gave higher antibacterial activity than its counterpart, zinc chloride with K. pneumonia recording the highest inhibition zone of 2.08 ± 0.03 mm (67.53%) whereas S. aureus recorded the least inhibition zone of 1.06 ± 0.14 mm (34.75%) for ZnO nanoaggregate from zinc chloride precursor. Also, antibacterial activity increases with increasing concentration of the extract in general. However, A. baumannii, E. aquaticum, and K. pneumoniae did not follow the continuity trend with regards to the 250 ppm and 500 ppm concentrations. Conclusion Biosynthesis of ZnO nanoaggregates using aqueous extract of A. occidentale leaf from zinc acetate dihydrate and zinc chloride as precursors was successful with the formation of nanospheres and nanoflakes. The study suggested that A. occidentale sp. could be an alternative source for the production of ZnO nanoparticles and are efficient antibacterial compounds against both Gram +ve and Gram −ve microbes with its promising effect against infectious bacteria.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Zinc oxide nanoaggregate, Zinc acetate dihydrate, Zinc chloride, Anacardium occidentale, Antibacterial activity, Biosynthesis
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
Divisions: Academic Faculties, Institutes and Centres > Faculty of Resource Science and Technology
Depositing User: Siong
Date Deposited: 07 Jan 2021 07:17
Last Modified: 01 Apr 2021 07:10
URI: http://ir.unimas.my/id/eprint/33647

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