Phenotypic, Taxonomy, Phytochemical and Physiological Characterization of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Cultivars in Malaysia.

Chen, Yi Shang (2020) Phenotypic, Taxonomy, Phytochemical and Physiological Characterization of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Cultivars in Malaysia. PhD thesis, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS).

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Abstract

To improve the global market competitiveness of Malaysian black pepper, the quality of peppercorn needs to be strengthened. The varietal regulation at farm level is the prerequisite to enhance quality of peppercorn toward strengthening the marketing strategy. This project has comprehensively documented the morphology of ten important black pepper cultivars in Malaysia, namely ‘Semongok Aman’, ‘Kuching’, ‘Semongok Emas’, ‘Semongok Perak’, ‘Semongok 1’, ‘Nyerigai’, ‘India’, ‘Lampung Daun Lebar’, ‘Sarikei’ and ‘Yong Petai’. The key diagnosis characteristics are ‘Semongok Aman’ (Mucronate shaped leaf apex; High percentage of fruit set high, ca. 76%), ‘Kuching’ (High number of inflorescence (spike) per branch per node, ca. 58.67; High number of node/feet of stem, ca. 4.73), ‘Semongok Emas’ (Leaf colour of Green Group 137 Series; Fruit colour of Green Group 141 Series), ‘Semongok Perak’ (Low conversion rate for production of dried black peppercorn, ca. 36.12%; Low conversion rate for production of dried white peppercorn, ca. 24.21%), ‘Semongok 1’ (Cordate shaped leaf; Anthocyanin absent at shoot tip), ‘Nyerigai’ (Erect branching behaviour at mature vine stage), ‘India’ (Lanceolate shaped leaf; Light seed weight, ca. 0.14 g), ‘Lampung Daun Lebar’ (Oblique shaped leaf base; Blade length-width ratio low, ca. 1.52), ‘Sarikei’ (Small leaf area, ca. 36.90 cm2; Short inflorescence, ca. 6.06 cm; Short fruit spike, ca. 8.07 cm; Small fruit size, ca. 5.78 mm; Small seed size, ca. 3.84 mm; Thin pericarp, ca. 1.73 mm) and ‘Yong Petai’ (Long inflorescence length, ca. 12.75 cm; Long fruit spike length, ca. 17.07 cm; Thin inflorescence, ca. 2.90 mm). Phenetic analysis and Principle Component Analysis enlightened that ‘Semongok Aman’ and ‘Semongok 1’ have high distinctive value for identification while ‘Kuching’ and ‘Sarikei’ have high similarity, thus identification are more complicated. In phytochemical study, analysis showed ‘Semongok Aman’ and ‘Lampung Daun Lebar’ has higher piperine (4.20% and 4.25% respectively) and essential oil content (2.50% and 2.24% respectively). At the same time, this analysis also proved the high pleasant aroma index of peppercorn of ‘Nyerigai’ (26.11), ‘Sarikei’ (25.20) and ‘Kuching’ (18.75). In physiological analysis where the evaluation is based on gas exchange performance and leaf area index, ‘Kuching’ was proven most productive, followed by ‘Nyerigai’ and ‘India’. Besides, the efficiency of artificial pollination has been improved also via floral biology study. This study suggests pollen collection for all the ten cultivars, ideally between 0400 h and 1400 h while the stigma was proven more receptive at stage where elongation and spreading of stigmata has occurred and the emergence and wide spreading of stigmata has been completed. In general, this study has ensured efficient in situ identification of black pepper cultivar base on the identification key produced. Besides, the commercial potential of each cultivar particularly in pharmacological and fragrance industry has also been identified. It was hoped the study outcome could be used as industry guideline to ensure sustainable development of Malaysian black pepper industry in future.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Additional Information: Thesis (PhD.) - Universiti Malaysia Sarawak , 2020.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Black pepper cultivar; floral biology study; Malaysia; morphological analysis; phytochemical study; physiological analysis; Piper nigrum L. , unimas, university, universiti, Borneo, Malaysia, Sarawak, Kuching, Samarahan, ipta, education, research, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak.
Subjects: S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)
Divisions: Academic Faculties, Institutes and Centres > Faculty of Resource Science and Technology
Depositing User: CHEN YI SHANG
Date Deposited: 27 Aug 2020 05:36
Last Modified: 27 Aug 2020 07:28
URI: http://ir.unimas.my/id/eprint/31415

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