Fish Composition and Physicochemical Parameters at the Upper Stretch of Baram River, Sarawak

Juliana Sambai, Sibat (2018) Fish Composition and Physicochemical Parameters at the Upper Stretch of Baram River, Sarawak. Masters thesis, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak.

[img] PDF
Juliana Sambai.pdf

Download (867kB)
[img] PDF (Please get the password by email to , or call ext: 082-583914/3942/3933)
Restricted to Registered users only

Download (2MB)


This present study aimed to investigate the diversity and distribution of freshwater fish from four areas (Lio Mato, Long Apu, Long San and Long Kesseh) in the upper stretch of Baram River, which has not been studied before. Studies were undertaken from August 2015 to July 2016. Sampling was done along 60 to 100 m reach of each tributary using an electro-shocker. The fish were also caught using 3 layered net, cast net and gill nets of various mesh sizes (2.54 cm, 5.08 cm, 7.06 cm, 10.16 cm, and 12.7 cm). Triplicates of selected water parameters were obtained in situ at each sampling site using Sonde Multiparameters YSI 6920 V2.2 while the standard method of APHA (2005) was used to measure the ex situ water quality parameters. A total of 1,376 fishes belonging to 13 families and 58 species were caught. Cyprinidae is the most abundant freshwater family in Baram River with 63.37% of the total number of individuals caught. Kryptopterus macrocephalus is the most dominant species constituting 12.06% of the total individuals caught (166 individuals). Biological Indices such as Shannon-Weiner, Margalef’s Index and Pielou’s Index were used to etermine the diversity and distribution of fish species. Long Apu (LA) recorded the highest Shannon Diversity Index H = 1.17 and the lowest was at Long San (LS) with H = 0.93. The highest richness Index was recorded at Lio Mato (LM) with D = 12.28 and the lowest was at Long Kesseh (LK) with D = 9.69. This showed that the total number of species at Lio Mato area is higher compared to the other sampling areas. The highest Pielou’s evenness index was recorded at Long Apu (LA) with J = 0.36 and the lowest was at Long San (LS) with J = 0.28. This shows that fish species in Long Apu area are equally diverse and comparable to the other three areas in Baram River. Pooled water quality readings recorded throughout the study period showed that conductivity, DO, pH, temperature and BOD5 were classified as Class I, while TSS and turbidity were categorized as Class III based on NWQS, Malaysia. This showed that the water can be used for irrigation with precaution but extensive treatment is needed before it could be used for domestic purposes. The exponent b value of LWR ranged from 2.316 (Kryptopterus apogon) to 3.487 (Rasbora caudimaculata). Length-weight relationship (LWR) and condition factor (K) of selected fish species show that only one species (Barbonymus schwanenfeldii) exhibited isometric growth, two species (Pseudolais micronemus and Rasbora caudimaculata) showed positive allometric growth and the remaining two species (Krytopterus apogon and osteochillus enneaporos) have negative allometric growth. The highest mean condition factor (K), was recorded in B. schwanenfeldii (1.21±0.23) while the lowest value was observed in K. apogon (0.35±0.03). Higher K value showed that Baram River provided a much better habitat for this species. HSI values varied from 0.106 for B. collingwodii to 0.648 for R. caudimaculata. GSI of male varied from 0.39 for H. planiceps to 1.17 for B. collingwodii. GSI of female varied from 0.80 for P. waandersii to 13.04 for R. caudimaculata. Study on the feeding habits of fishes in Baram showed that Barbonymus schwanenfeldii, Luciosoma setigerum, Pseudolais micronemus and Rasbora caudimaculata are omnivorous while Krytopterus apogon is carnivorous. C. apogon could be classified as a euryphagous omnivore, feeding on a wide range of food of benthic organisms. Hemibagrus planiceps is suggested as euryphagous as they feed on wide ranges of food. The findings of this study are expected to benefit the planning and management towards conservation programs in Baram River.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Additional Information: Thesis (MSC) -- Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 2018.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Fish distribution, diversity index, length-weight relationship, Pielou’s index, unimas, university, universiti, Borneo, Malaysia, Sarawak, Kuching, Samarahan, ipta, education, Postgraduate, research, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak.
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history
Divisions: Academic Faculties, Institutes and Centres > Faculty of Resource Science and Technology
Faculties, Institutes, Centres > Faculty of Resource Science and Technology
Depositing User: Dan
Date Deposited: 15 Jul 2020 08:40
Last Modified: 22 May 2023 07:58

Actions (For repository members only: login required)

View Item View Item