Distribution of waterborne parasites in raw and treated water from the selected water sources in Kuching Division

Ahmad Syatir, Tahar (2019) Distribution of waterborne parasites in raw and treated water from the selected water sources in Kuching Division. Masters thesis, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS).

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Waterborne parasites are associated with numerous gastrointestinal disease outbreaks worldwide. Despite being treated at water treatment plants, waterborne parasites are resistant to conventional water treatments and persistent in the treated water for public uses. The safety of water supply in Sarawak towards waterborne parasites, including for the public or small community, has not been determined thus far. This study was conducted to determine the distribution of waterborne parasites in raw and treated water of Batu Kitang, Bau and Siniawan drinking water treatment plants, Tringgus catchment area and a rural village (Bong Village) in Bau. A total of 69 raw and treated water samples were collected from Batu Kitang, Bau and Siniawan Water Treatment Plants, Tringgus catchment area, Bong Village rural settlement. Water samples were also collected at each sampling site and analysed for faecal coliform analysis. Moreover, physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and total dissolved solids) were also recorded on-site and 24-hour antecedent rainfall intensity was recorded. The 10-L water samples were processed with aluminium sulphate flocculation and sucrose floatation method. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected using Aqua-GloTM G/C Direct, FL kit and diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride staining, while other parasites were detected using Lugol’s iodine staining. Overall, six species of waterborne parasites were found in the raw water from all water treatment plants which were Cryptosporidium (11.11%; 2/18 samples), Giardia (11.11%; 2/18), hookworm (11.11%; 2/18), Ascaris (11.11%; 2/18), Schistosoma (5.56%; 1/18) and nematode larvae (16.67%; 3/18), whilst three species of parasites were found in the treated water which were Cryptosporidium (16.67%; 3/18), Enterobius (5.56%; 1/18) and nematode larvae (11.11%; 2/18). Whereas, two species of parasites were found in samples from Tringgus catchment which were Cryptosporidium (50%; 6/12) and Giardia (8.33%; 1/12). At Bong Village, three species were detected which were Cryptosporidium (9.52%; 2/21) Giardia (4.76%; 1/21) and Clonorchis (9.52%; 2/21). Based on the correlation analysis, no correlations were found between parasite occurrence with the parameters (i.e. physicochemical parameters, faecal coliform concentration and rainfall intensity), except Cryptosporidium was found positively correlated with dissolved oxygen of the water (Tb = 0.206; P<0.05) and negatively correlated with rainfall intensity (Tb = - 0.185; P<0.01), Giardia was found positively correlated with pH (Tb = -0.166; P<0.01), while nematode larvae was found positively correlated with turbidity (Tb = 0.185; P<0.01) and faecal coliform concentration of the water (Tb = 0.181; P<0.01). The finding of this study revealed the presence of waterborne parasites in the water for public uses. As a recommendation for future studies, species and genotypes of the parasites especially Cryptosporidium and Giardia should be focused molecularly to assess the risk of human contracting the infections. Based on this study, there is a need to include waterborne parasites as one of monitoring parameters in the current Malaysia Drinking Water Quality Standard. Risk management control studies such as the sources of contamination to the water bodies (e.g. nearby animal husbandry) involved in the water production by treatment facilities should be carried out in order to contain the waterborne parasites outbreak. Furthermore, public awareness and health intervention for the community must be taken into consideration as one of the measures to prevent such outbreaks.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Additional Information: Thesis (MSc.) - Universiti Malaysia Sarawak , 2019.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Cryptosporidium, Giardia, waterborne parasites, drinking water, water treatment, Kuching, unimas, university, universiti, Borneo, Malaysia, Sarawak, Kuching, Samarahan, ipta, education, Postgraduate, research, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak.
Subjects: Q Science > QR Microbiology
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
Divisions: Academic Faculties, Institutes and Centres > Faculty of Resource Science and Technology
Faculties, Institutes, Centres > Faculty of Resource Science and Technology
Date Deposited: 07 Aug 2019 02:23
Last Modified: 07 Mar 2023 05:00
URI: http://ir.unimas.my/id/eprint/26327

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