Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences

Volume 97, 6 November 2013, Pages 114-121
open access
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences

Language and Literacy Profiles: A Mixture Modeling Approach

Under a Creative Commons license


Mixture modeling was used to examined the: (a) heterogeneity and prevalence of the language and literacy profiles among 521 first grade students (Malaysian equivalent of Primary 1) and (b) predictors that optimize the classification of language and literacy profiles. Based on the Simple View of Reading as a theoretical framework, five language and literacy profiles were identified. These were students with: a) the weakest performance on average in literacy but slightly higher language skills, b) weak performance in both language and literacy, c) average performance in language and literacy, d) above average performance on language and literacy, and e) the strongest performance in language and literacy. Unique predictors of class membership differentiation for all groups were phonological awareness, teacher judgment on academic achievement, and socioeconomic status.


Mixture Modelling
Latent Profiles
First Grade

Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the Universiti Malaysia Sarawak.