Absence of Plasmodium inui and Plasmodium cynomolgi, but detection of Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium vivax infections in asymptomatic humans in the Betong division of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo

Siner, Angela and Liew, Sze-Tze and Khamisah, Abdul Kadir and Dayang Shuaisah, Awang Mohamad and Felicia Kavita, Thomas and Mohammad, Zulkarnaen and Balbir, Singh (2017) Absence of Plasmodium inui and Plasmodium cynomolgi, but detection of Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium vivax infections in asymptomatic humans in the Betong division of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Malaria Journal, 16. p. 417. ISSN 14752875

[img] PDF

Download (889kB)
Official URL: https://malariajournal.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf...


Background: Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite, has become the main cause of malaria in Sarawak,Malaysian Borneo. Epidemiological data on malaria for Sarawak has been derived solely from hospitalized patients,and more accurate epidemiological data on malaria is necessary. Therefore, a longitudinal study of communities affected by knowlesi malaria was undertaken. Methods: A total of 3002 blood samples on filter paper were collected from 555 inhabitants of 8 longhouses with recently reported knowlesi malaria cases in the Betong Division of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Each longhouse was visited bimonthly for a total of 10 times during a 21-month study period (Jan 2014–Oct 2015). DNA extracted from blood spots were examined by a nested PCR assay for Plasmodium and positive samples were then examined by nested PCR assays for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium cynomolgi and Plasmodium inui. Blood films of samples positive by PCR were also examined by microscopy. Results: Genus-specific PCR assay detected Plasmodium DNA in 9 out of 3002 samples. Species-specific PCR identified 7 P. knowlesi and one P. vivax. Malaria parasites were observed in 5 thick blood films of the PCR positive samples. No parasites were observed in blood films from one knowlesi-, one vivax- and the genus-positive samples. Only one of 7 P. knowlesi-infected individual was febrile and had sought medical treatment at Betong Hospital the day after sampling. The 6 knowlesi-, one vivax- and one Plasmodium-infected individuals were afebrile and did not seek any medical treatment. Conclusions: Asymptomatic human P. knowlesi and P. vivax malaria infections, but not P. cynomolgi and P. inui infections,are occurring within communities affected with malaria.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: 1. Singh B, Kim Sung L, Matusop A, Radhakrishnan A, Shamsul SS, Cox-Singh J, et al. A large focus of naturally acquired Plasmodium knowlesi infections in human beings. Lancet. 2004;363:1017-24. 2. Sinton JA, Mulligan HW. Plasmodium knowlesi. In: The Primate Malarias. Bethesda, Maryland: U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases [for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt Print Off., Washington.]; 1971: 317. 3. Singh B, Daneshvar C. Human infections and detection of Plasmodium knowlesi. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2013;26:165-84. 4. Lee KS, Cox-Singh J, Singh B. Morphological features and differential counts of Plasmodium knowlesi parasites in naturally acquired human infections. Malar J. 2009;8:73. 5. Cox-Singh J, Davis TM, Lee KS, Shamsul SS, Matusop A, Ratnam S, et al. Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in humans is widely distributed and potentially life threatening. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:165-71. 6. Vythilingam I, Noorazian YM, Huat TC, Jiram AI, Yusri YM, Azahari AH, et al. Plasmodium knowlesi in humans, macaques and mosquitoes in peninsular Malaysia. Parasit Vectors. 2008;1:26. 7. Lau YL, Tan LH, Chin LC, Fong MY, Noraishah MA, Rohela M. Plasmodium knowlesi reinfection in human. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1314-5. 8. Barber BE, William T, Dhararaj P, Anderios F, Grigg MJ, Yeo TW, et al. Epidemiology of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in north-east Sabah, Malaysia: family clusters and wide age distribution. Malar J. 2012;11:401. 9. William T, Menon J, Rajahram G, Chan L, Ma G, Donaldson S et al. Severe Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in a tertiary care hospital, Sabah, Malaysia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011; 17:1248-55. 10. Jongwutiwes S, Putaporntip C, Iwasaki T, Sata T, Kanbara H. Naturally acquired Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in human, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004; 10;:2211-;3. 11. Putaporntip C, Hongsrimuang T, Seethamchai S, Kobasa T, Limkittikul K, Cui L, et al. Differential prevalence of Plasmodium infections and cryptic Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in humans in Thailand. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:1143-50. 12. Luchavez J, Espino F, Curameng P, Espina R, Bell D, Chiodini P et al. Human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi, the Philippines. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008; 14:811-3. 13. Ng OT, Ooi EE, Lee CC, Lee PJ, Ng LC, Pei SW et al. Naturally acquired human Plasmodium knowlesi infection, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008; 14:814-6. 14. Jiang N, Chang Q, Sun X, Lu H, Yin J, Zhang Z et al. Co-infections with Plasmodium knowlesi and other malaria parasites, Myanmar. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010; 16:1476-8. 15. Lubis IN, Wijaya H, Lubis M, Lubis CP, Divis PC, Beshir KB et al. Contribution of Plasmodium knowlesi to multi-species human malaria infections in North Sumatera, Indonesia. J Infect Dis. 2017; doi 10.1093/infdis/jix091. 16. Khim N, Siv S, Kim S, Mueller T, Fleischmann E, Singh B et al. Plasmodium knowlesi infection in humans, Cambodia, 2007-2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011; 17:1900-2. 17. Marchand RP, Culleton R, Maeno Y, Quang NT, Nakazawa S. Co-infections of Plasmodium knowlesi, P. falciparum, and P. vivax among humans and Anopheles dirus mosquitoes, Southern Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011; 17:1232-9. 18. Official Portal: Sarawak State Health Department [jknssarawak.moh.gov.my/bm/] 19. Singh B, Bobogare A, Cox-Singh J, Snounou G, Abdullah MS, Rahman HA. A genus- and species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction malaria detection assay for epidemiologic studies. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999; 60:687-92. 20. Singh B, Daneshvar C. Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Malaysia. Med J Malaysia. 2010; 65:166-72. 21. Daneshvar C, Davis TM, Cox-Singh J, Rafa'ee MZ, Zakaria SK, Divis PC et al. Clinical and laboratory features of human Plasmodium knowlesi infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2009; 49:852-60. 22. Chin W, Contacos PG, Collins WE, Jeter MH, Alpert E. Experimental mosquito-transmission of Plasmodium knowlesi to man and monkey. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1968; 17:355-8. 23. Coatney GR. The simian malarias: zoonoses, anthroponoses, or both? Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1971; 20:795-803. 24. Scuracchio P, Vieira SD, Dourado DA, Bueno LM, Colella R, Ramos-Sanchez EM et al. Transfusion-transmitted malaria: case report of asymptomatic donor harboring Plasmodium malariae. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2011; 53:55-9. 25. Rojo-Marcos G, Cuadros-Gonzalez J, Mesa-Latorre JM, Culebras-Lopez AM, de Pablo-Sanchez R. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in a case of Plasmodium ovale malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008; 79:391-3. 26. Alves FP, Durlacher RR, Menezes MJ, Krieger H, Silva LH, Camargo EP. High prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infections in native Amazonian populations. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002; 66:641-8. 27. Harris I, Sharrock WW, Bain LM, Gray KA, Bobogare A, Boaz L et al. A large proportion of asymptomatic Plasmodium infections with low and sub-microscopic parasite densities in the low transmission setting of Temotu Province, Solomon Islands: challenges for malaria diagnostics in an elimination setting. Malar J. 2010; 9:254. 28. Van den Eede P, Van HN, Van Overmeir C, Vythilingam I, Duc TN, Hung le X et al. Human Plasmodium knowlesi infections in young children in central Vietnam. Malar J. 2009; 8:249. 29. Fornace KM, Nuin NA, Betson M, Grigg MJ, William T, Anstey NM et al. Asymptomatic and submicroscopic carriage of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in household and community members of clinical cases in Sabah, Malaysia. J Infect Dis. 2015; 213:784-7. 30. Ta TH, Hisam S, Lanza M, Jiram AI, Ismail N, Rubio JM. First case of a naturally acquired human infection with Plasmodium cynomolgi. Malar J. 2014; 13:68. 31. Lee KS, Divis PC, Zakaria SK, Matusop A, Julin RA, Conway DJ et al. Plasmodium knowlesi: reservoir hosts and tracking the emergence in humans and macaques. PLoS Pathog. 2011; 7:e1002015. 32. Snounou G, Viriyakosol S, Zhu XP, Jarra W, Pinheiro L, do Rosario VE et al. High sensitivity of detection of human malaria parasites by the use of nested polymerase chain reaction. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1993; 61:315-20. 33. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Blood specimens-microscopic examination. In: DPDx-Laboratory Identification of Parasitic Diseases of Public Health Concern. 2016. http://www.cdc.gov/dpdx/diagnosticProcedures/blood/microexam.html. Accessed 23 November 2016. 34. Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S. MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol. 2011; 28:2731-9. 35. Herdiana H, Cotter C, Coutrier FN, Zarlinda I, Zelman BW, Tirta YK et al. Malaria risk factor assessment using active and passive surveillance data from Aceh Besar, Indonesia, a low endemic, malaria elimination setting with Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium falciparum. Malar J. 2016; 15:468. 36. Li P, Zhao Z, Wang Y, Xing H, Parker DM, Yang Z et al. Nested PCR detection of malaria directly using blood filter paper samples from epidemiological surveys. Malar J. 2014; 13:175. 37. Lo E, Zhou G, Oo W, Afrane Y, Githeko A, Yan G. Low parasitemia in submicroscopic infections significantly impacts malaria diagnostic sensitivity in the highlands of Western Kenya. PLoS One. 2015; 10:e0121763. 38. Rek J, Katrak S, Obasi H, Nayebare P, Katureebe A, Kakande E et al. Characterizing microscopic and submicroscopic malaria parasitaemia at three sites with varied transmission intensity in Uganda. Malar J. 2016; 15:470. 39. Tadesse FG, van den Hoogen L, Lanke K, Schildkraut J, Tetteh K, Aseffa A et al. The shape of the iceberg: quantification of submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasitaemia and gametocytaemia in five low endemic settings in Ethiopia. Malar J. 2017; 16:99. 40. Zhao Y, Lv Y, Liu F, Wang Q, Li P, Zhao Z et al. Comparison of methods for detecting asymptomatic malaria infections in the China-Myanmar border area. Malar J. 2017; 16:159. 41. Hsiang MS, Lin M, Dokomajilar C, Kemere J, Pilcher CD, Dorsey G et al. PCR-based pooling of dried blood spots for detection of malaria parasites: optimization and application to a cohort of Ugandan children. J Clin Microbiol. 2010; 48:3539-43. 42. Hsiang MS, Hwang J, Kunene S, Drakeley C, Kandula D, Novotny J et al. Surveillance for malaria elimination in Swaziland: a national cross-sectional study using pooled PCR and serology. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7:e29550. 43. Wong ML, Chua TH, Leong CS, Khaw LT, Fornace K, Wan-Sulaiman WY et al. Seasonal and spatial dynamics of the primary vector of Plasmodium knowlesi within a major transmission focus in Sabah, Malaysia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015; 9:e0004135. 44. Li J, Gutell RR, Damberger SH, Wirtz RA, Kissinger JC, Rogers MJ et al. Regulation and trafficking of three distinct 18 S ribosomal RNAs during development of the malaria parasite. J Mol Biol. 1997; 269:203-13. 45. Kosaisavee V, Suwanarusk R, Chua ACY, Kyle DE, Malleret B, Zhang R et al. Strict tropism for CD71+/CD234+ human reticulocytes limits the zoonotic potential of Plasmodium cynomolgi. Blood. 2017; 130:1357-63. 46. Chen I, Clarke SE, Gosling R, Hamainza B, Killeen G, Magill A et al. "Asymptomatic" malaria: a chronic and debilitating infection that should be treated. PLoS Med. 2016; 13:e1001942.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Plasmodium knowlesi, Malaria, Asymptomatic, Submicroscopic, unimas, university, universiti, Borneo, Malaysia, Sarawak, Kuching, Samarahan, ipta, education, research, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Divisions: Academic Faculties, Institutes and Centres > Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Depositing User: Siner
Date Deposited: 31 Oct 2017 07:09
Last Modified: 08 Jun 2021 08:53
URI: http://ir.unimas.my/id/eprint/18395

Actions (For repository members only: login required)

View Item View Item