The occurrence of trihalomethanes in Sarawak's Jabatan Kerja Raya water supplies and the possible relationship with soil types

Christopher, anak George (2006) The occurrence of trihalomethanes in Sarawak's Jabatan Kerja Raya water supplies and the possible relationship with soil types. Masters thesis, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, UNIMAS.

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Abstract

The development, operation and maintenance of water supply in Sarawak are undertaken by four agencies, namely, Public Works Department, Kuching Water Board, Sibu Water Board and LAKD. However, the Medical Department will assist on supplying gravity feed water supply to areas not yet supplied by any of the four agencies. The objective of this study was to determine the level of trihalomethanes found in the respective water supply authorities between the last 10 years from 1996 until 2005. Trihalomethanes are one of the disinfection by-products and considered to be carcinogenic to the affected consumers in the long term. The data for this study was collected from the Water Supply Branch, JKR Headquarters in Kuching, Sarawak and the data is based on the previous ten (10) years of data collected by JKR Headquarters from 1996 until 2005. The data was later analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 11.0, whereby descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Pearson Product Moment Coefficient was used to determine the relationship between the average level of trihalomethanes present in treated water detected by each of the water supply authority and soil type of the area. It is a measure of association that allows researchers to determine the strength and direction of an association. An 'r' value of -0.199 from the statistical analysis indicated that a negative relationShip exists between the average range oflevel of trihalomethanes and soil type. In other words, the higher the level of trihalomethanes detected, the less ix peat the soil type is which means that trihalomethanes can occur anyway regardless ifthe soil is of peat soil type or non-peat soil. Two hypotheses have been developed for the purpose of studying the relationship between trihalomethanes and the soil! type, namely the Null Hypothesis (Ho) and the Alternative Hypothesis (Ha). The Null Hypothesis (Ho) indicates that there is no association between the soil type factor and the occurrence of trihalomethanes. As for the Alternative Hypothesis (Ha), this hypothesis indicates that there is an association between the soil type factor and the occurrence of trihalomethanes. Based on the analysis, it can be interpreted that the Null Hypothesis is significant whereby it indicated no association between the soil type and the occurrence of trihalomethanes. Even though this study proposed the use of powdered or granular activated carbon (pAC or GAC) at the affected treatment plants to remove dissolved organics, colour and taste and odour-causing compounds, the cost factor needs to be considered by JKR Sarawak before any implementation on the usage of PAC or GAC is to be carried out for the affected treatments plants. As at end of 2005, JKR Sarawak. has not use the PAC or GAC at their affected treatment plants. However, this study also suggested another option which is the privatization of all the treatment plants under JKR Sarawak. Nevertheless, this option will have to be carefully studied by the potential private sectors in terms of return investments and the socio-economic statu's of the rural people where most of these treatment plants are located.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Additional Information: Thesis (M.Sc.) - Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 2006.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Trihalomethanes, Environmental aspects, water, purification, unimas, university, universiti, Borneo, Malaysia, Sarawak, Kuching, Samarahan, ipta, education, Postgraduate, research, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
Divisions: Academic Faculties, Institutes and Centres > Faculty of Resource Science and Technology
Depositing User: Karen Kornalius
Date Deposited: 29 Jan 2016 01:01
Last Modified: 29 Jan 2016 01:01
URI: http://ir.unimas.my/id/eprint/10390

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